Volume 7.00 | Jan 7

Extracellular Matrix News 7.00 January 7, 2016
Extracellular Matrix News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Cartilage Micromechanics: Research Shows that Tiny Non-Fibrous Regions within Fibrous Tissue Affect Behavior
Fibro-cartilaginous tissues have small non-fibrous regions, known as microdomains, that behave very differently from the fibrous areas. Investigators looked at the mechanics of the system, and they found that while aligned fibrous tissues were very elastic, behaving like a rubber band when stretched, the microdomains did not stretch. [Press release from the University of Delaware discussing online prepublication in Nature Materials] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Nanoscale Patterning of Extracellular Matrix Alters Endothelial Function under Shear Stress
Since shear stress acts on endothelial cells (ECs) by applying a mechanical force concomitant with inducing spatial patterning of the cells, researchers sought to decouple the effects of shear stress using parallel-aligned nanofibrillar collagen films that induce parallel EC alignment prior to stimulation with disturbed flow resulting from spatial wall shear stress gradients. [Nano Lett] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

A Negative Regulatory Mechanism Involving 14-3-3ζ Limits Signaling Downstream of ROCK to Regulate Tissue Stiffness in Epidermal Homeostasis
Investigators identified a negative feedback mechanism that limits excessive ROCK signaling during wound healing and is lost in squamous cell carcinomas. In 14-3-3ζ−/− mice, unrestrained ROCK signaling at wound margins elevated ECM production and reduced ECM remodeling, increasing dermal stiffness and causing rapid wound healing. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Activation of Integrin α5 Mediated by Flow Requires Its Translocation to Membrane Lipid Rafts in Vascular Endothelial Cells
Scientists investigated the role of lipid rafts and integrin α5 in regulating the inflammatory response in endothelial cells under atheroprone versus atheroprotective flow. Among 396 proteins redistributed in lipid rafts, integrin α5 was the most significantly elevated in lipid rafts under oscillatory shear stress. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

ECM Signaling Regulates Collective Cellular Dynamics to Control Pancreas Branching Morphogenesis
Researchers employed time-lapse microscopy and fluorescent labeling of cells to analyze cell behaviors associated with pancreas morphogenesis. They showed that integrin signaling reduces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in outer cells and provide genetic evidence that this regulation is necessary for initiation of branching. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Multi-Layered Collagen-Based Scaffolds for Osteochondral Defect Repair in Rabbits
Scientists assessed the in vivo response to a multi-layer collagen-based osteochondral defect repair scaffold and determined its ability to direct regenerative responses in each layer in order to repair osteochondral tissue in a critical-sized defect in a rabbit knee. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

Potency of Umbilical Cord Blood- and Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Scarless Wound Healing
Based on the properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue repair and immunomodulation, researchers investigated the potential of MSCs for scarless wound healing. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Constructive Remodeling of a Synthetic Endothelial Extracellular Matrix
The authors present an approach for forming a synthetic endothelial extracellular matrix that closely resembles that of the native structure by locally depositing basement membrane materials onto type 1 collagen nanofibers only in a region adjacent to the endothelial cell monolayer. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Injectable Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels as Scaffolds for Spinal Cord Injury Repair
Researchers evaluated the presumed neuroregenerative properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels in vivo in the acute model of spinal cord injury. ECM hydrogels were prepared by decellularization of porcine spinal cord or porcine urinary bladder, and injected into a spinal cord hemisection cavity. [Tissue Eng Part A] Abstract

Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm
Almost 500 different extracellular matrix protein combinations were screened to systemically identify extracellular matrix proteins that influence differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Front and Rear of Collective Cell Migration
Recent studies have described how leader cells at the front of cell groups drive migration and have highlighted the importance of follower cells and cell-cell communication, both between followers and between follower and leader cells, to improve the efficiency of collective movement. [Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the Extracellular Matrix research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Two ERC Starting Grants and One ERC Consolidator Grant for IST Austria
Developmental biologist Anna Kicheva will investigate the coordination of tissue patterning and growth during vertebrate development in her ERC project. The grant is funded with €1.5 million for the duration of five years. [IST Austria] Press Release

Harnessing the Body’s Immune System to Heal Wounds Naturally
Kara Spiller, PhD, will seek to better understand the relationship between the body’s natural healing process and tissue regeneration with a five-year $1.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. [Drexel University] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Gordon Research Seminar – Bioinspired Materials
June 4-5, 2016
Les Diablerets, Switzerland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the Extracellular Matrix community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Wound Healing and Cell Migration (University of California, Davis)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Genome Engineering (Amgen, Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Angiogenesis and Vascular Malformation (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Faculty Positions – Systems Biomedicine (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Bioengineering and Biology (University of Minnesota)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Ophthalmology Research (University of California, San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Interactions between Innate Immunity and Extracellular Matrix in Joint Diseases (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Statistical Analysis of Cell Migration (Karolinska Institutet)

PhD Position – Cancer Research and Wound Healing (Technion, Israel Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Mechanobiology (Washington University in St. Louis)


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