Volume 6.20 | May 28

Extracellular Matrix News 6.20 May 28, 2015
Extracellular Matrix News
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TOP STORY
Scientists Reveal Potential New Drug Target for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Researchers identified a novel drug target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that focuses on the cells that are directly responsible for the cartilage damage in affected joints. [Press release from the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology discussing online publication in Science Translational Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Availability of Extracellular Matrix Biopolymers and Differentiation State of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Determine Tissue-Like Growth In Vitro
To explore the space-filling growth of adherent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into tissue-like structures in vitro, human bone marrow derived MSC were exposed to fibronectin-coated, millimeter-sized, triangular channels casted in poly(dimethyl siloxane) carriers. [Biomaterials] Abstract

Presence of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Correlates with Tumor-Promoting Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Breast Cancer
Scientists compared stromal components of a luminal and a triple-negative/basal-like genetically engineered breast cancer mouse model. The types of cytokines and their expression levels were very different in the two models, as was the extent of innate immune cell infiltration; however, both models showed infiltration of innate immune cells that expressed matrix metalloproteinase 9, an extracellular protease linked to the progression of many types of cancer. [Neoplasia] Full Article | Press Release

Three-Dimensional Cage-Like Microscaffolds for Cell Invasion Studies
During the invasive process, tumor cells must pass through the extracellular matrix, whose structural and mechanical properties define the parameters of the migration process. Investigators propose three-dimensional-complex cage-like microstructures, realized by two-photon direct laser writing, to analyze cell migration through pores significantly smaller than the cell nucleus. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Partially Digested Adult Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Promotes Cardiomyocyte Proliferation In Vitro
Investigators hypothesized that partial digestion of adult extracellular matrix (ECM) would liberate less crosslinked components that promote cardiomyocyte proliferation, similar to fetal ECM. [Adv Healthc Mater] Abstract

Severe Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities and Chondrodysplasia in Mice Lacking Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Isoenzyme II in Combination with a Reduced Amount of Isoenzyme I
To assess possible functional complementarity, scientists established P4ha1+/-;P4ha2-/- mice. The columnar arrangement of proliferative chondrocytes was impaired, the amount of 4-hydroxyproline and the Tm of collagen II were reduced and the extracellular matrix was softer in the growth plates of newborn P4ha1+/-;P4ha2-/- mice. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Artificial Extracellular Matrices Support Cell Growth and Matrix Synthesis of Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Macroporous 3D Scaffolds
Coatings with artificial extracellular matrix, consisting of the structural protein collagen I and the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) or sulphated HA derivatives, were investigated for their applicability in a three-dimensional (3D) system. [J Tissue Eng Regen Med] Abstract

Role of α1 and α2 Chains of Type IV Collagen in Early Fibrotic Lesions of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias and Migration of Lung Fibroblasts
Researchers studied the expression of type I and III collagen and all α chains of type IV collagen in lung specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or organizing pneumonia (OP) via immunohistochemistry. Although they observed type I and III collagens in early fibrotic lesions of both UIP and OP, they found type IV collagen, especially α1 and α2 chains, in early fibrotic lesions of UIP but not OP. [Lab Invest] Abstract

The Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma
Scientists found that the in vitro stimulation of dedifferentiated liposarcomas cells with hepatocyte growth factor elevated the degree of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway signaling, and that pro-tumorigenic phenotypes such as cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were significantly enhanced. [Lab Invest] Abstract

The BRAFV600E Inhibitor, PLX4032, Increases Type I Collagen Synthesis in Melanoma Cells
The authors document that blocking the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk MAPK pathway, either with an ERK (PLX4032) or a MEK signaling inhibitor, in BRAFV600E human and murine melanoma cell lines increases collagen synthesis in vitro and collagen deposition in vivo. Since TGFβ signaling is a major mediator of collagen synthesis, they examined whether blocking TGFβ signaling with a small molecule inhibitor would block this increase in collagen. [Matrix Biol] Full Article | Press Release

Skin Physiology in Microgravity: A Three-Month Stay aboard ISS Induces Dermal Atrophy and Affects Cutaneous Muscle and Hair Follicles Cycling in Mice
Mice were maintained in the Mice Drawer System for 91 days aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Skin specimens were collected shortly after landing for morphometric, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses. A significant reduction of dermal thickness was observed accompanied by an increased newly synthesized procollagen, likely reflecting an increased collagen turnover. [npj Microgravity]
Full Article | Press Release

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REVIEWS
Extracellular Matrix Networks in Bone Remodeling
The authors focus on how networks of extracellular matrix proteins function to regulate osteoclast- and osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling. The clinical significance of these networks on normal bone and as they relate to pathologies of bone mass and geometry are considered. [Int J Biochem Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the extracellular matrix research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
CPRIT Awards $16.6 Million for Cancer Research, Prevention, and Faculty Recruitment
The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers more than $12.6 million in research grants for cancer research and prevention, as well as an additional $4 million for recruiting cancer scientists. [UT Southwestern Medical Center] Press Release

Researcher Awarded 4.9 Million Grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Shaomei Wang, MD, PhD, a research scientist in the Eye Program at the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, received a $4.9 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine to advance her work in retinitis pigmentosa, a type of degenerative retinal disease. [Cedars-Sinai] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Report Finds Trachea Surgeon Committed Misconduct
An investigation has concluded that surgeon Paolo Macchiarini, famous for transplanting tissue-engineered tracheae into more than a dozen people, committed scientific misconduct. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa
October 7-9, 2015
La Jolla, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the extracellular matrix community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Angiogenesis, Proteases and Extracellular Matrix (GENYO)

NEW PhD Studentship – Polymeric Biomaterials and their Biological Evaluation (Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht)

PhD Positions – Cartilage Regeneration in Joints and Intervertebral Disc Diseases (Percuros B.V.)

Assistant Professor – Instructive Biomaterials Engineering (Maastricht University)

Faculty Positions – Regenerative Medicine for Kidney or Liver Regeneration or Transplantation (University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston)

PhD Position – Tumor Biology (University of Duisburg-Essen)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Disseminated Tumor Cell Biology (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

PhD Position – Cartilage Regeneration in Joints (ProCore Bio Med Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)


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