Volume 6.16 | Apr 30

Extracellular Matrix News 6.16 April 30, 2015
Extracellular Matrix News
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Cell Type Responsible for Scarring, Skin-Cancer Growth Identified
A single cell type in the skin of mice is a major contributor to scarring after wound healing or radiation damage, and facilitates the growth of melanoma. Blocking the cell’s activity in humans may be possible with currently approved drugs. [Press release from Stanford University discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Development of Simplified and Defined Cell Culture for hPSCs - Watch Now!
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Mitigation of Tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-Printed Personalized Medical Devices in Pediatric Patients
Researchers demonstrated the successful application of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of tracheobronchomalacia, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Epigenetic Silencing of MicroRNA-149 in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Mediates Prostaglandin E2/Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment
Scientists showed that microRNA-149 links prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-6 signaling in mediating the crosstalk between tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in gastric cancer. [Cell Res] Full Article

Regulated Delivery of Molecular Cargo to Invasive Tumor-Derived Microvesicles
Researchers demonstrated that in amoeboid-like invasive tumor cell lines, the v-SNARE, VAMP3, regulates delivery of microvesicle cargo such as the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) to shedding microvesicles. MT1-MMP delivery to nascent microvesicles depends on the association of VAMP3 with the tetraspanin CD9 and facilitates the maintenance of amoeboid cell invasion. [Nat Commun]
Abstract | Press Release

Inverted Formin 2 in Focal Adhesions Promotes Dorsal Stress Fiber and Fibrillar Adhesion Formation to Drive Extracellular Matrix Assembly
Scientists found that inverted formin 2 is responsible for generating specific actin structures and specialized integrin-based fibrillar adhesions that are required for remodeling of the fibronectin extracellular matrix by fibroblasts. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Deconstructing the Role of the ECM Microenvironment on Drug Efficacy Targeting MAPK Signaling in a Pre-Clinical Platform for Cutaneous Melanoma
Investigators reasoned that extracellular matrix (ECM) composition strongly determines drug efficacy on cell motility, adhesion and viability rendering one drug more potent and another less so. To test this hypothesis, they constructed platforms recreating the ECM composition due to the stroma and tumor cells, mimicking the brain’s perivascular niche and hyaluronic acid rich parenchyma. [Biomaterials] Abstract

Age-Related Decline in the Matrix Contents and Functional Properties of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Sheets
The ability of periodontal ligament stem cells to form sheets, based on their extracellular matrix contents and their functional properties necessary for osteogenic differentiation, was evaluated to predict the age-related changes in the regenerative capacity of the cell sheets in their further application. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

From 2D to 3D: Novel Nanostructured Scaffolds to Investigate Signaling in Reconstructed Neuronal Networks
Researchers fabricated novel elastomeric scaffolds able to instruct 3D growth of living primary neurons. Such systems allow investigating the emerging activity, in terms of calcium signals, of small clusters of neurons as a function of the interplay between the 2D or 3D architectures and network dynamics. [Sci Rep]
Full Article | Press Release

Endogenous Optical Signals Reveal Changes of Elastin and Collagen Organization during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Researchers examined the efficacy of utilizing the endogenous optical signals of two important extracellular matrix proteins, elastin, via autofluorescence, and type I collagen, via second harmonic generation, during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation. [Tissue Eng Part C] Abstract

The Matrikine N-α-PGP Couples Extracellular Matrix Fragmentation to Endothelial Permeability
Investigators demonstrated that the collagen-derived matrikine acetylated proline-glycine-proline (N-α-PGP) serves as a critical regulator of endothelial permeability. N-α-PGP activated human endothelial cells via CXC-chemokine receptor 2, triggering monolayer permeability through a discrete intracellular signaling pathway. [Sci Adv] Full Article | Press Release

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The Extracellular Matrix Compartment of Neural Stem and Glial Progenitor Cells
The authors summarize studies that indicate pivotal roles of the extracellular matrix micromilieu for the biology and instrumental use of glial stem and progenitor cells of the CNS. [Glia] Abstract

Mechanobiology of Myofibroblast Adhesion in Fibrotic Cardiac Disease
Investigators summarize recent findings on the role of mechanotransduction through integrins and cadherins to perpetuate mechanically induced differentiation and fibrosis in the context of cardiac disease. [J Cell Sci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the extracellular matrix research field.
NIH Funds WPI Study Aimed at Engineering More Natural and Durable Replacement Heart Valves
With a $450,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) will analyze how mechanical forces and cellular growth factors affect the growth and development of human heart valves to advance the long-term goal of using tissue engineering to develop replacement valves that are more natural and longer-lasting than current replacement valves. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute] Press Release

Allegheny Health Network Launches First U.S. Clinical Trial Testing Extracellular Matrix as Replacement for Pre-Cancerous Tissue
An Allegheny Health Network team has launched the first U.S. clinical trial to investigate whether replacing esophageal tissue with extracellular matrix can help patients who are at high risk of developing a lethal form of esophageal cancer. [Allegheny Health Network] Press Release

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 2nd Annual World Congress of Smart Materials (WCSM-2016)
March 4-6, 2016
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the extracellular matrix community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

Tenure Track Position – Structural Biology (University of Oulu)

PhD Positions – Cartilage Regeneration in Joints and Intervertebral Disc Diseases (AO Research Institute)

Cell Biologist – Neurodegeneration (MedImmune LLC)

Postdoctoral Position – ECM Integrin Signaling (Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Early Human Brain Development Modeling with hiPSCs (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Role of ECM Proteolysis in Normal and Pathological Corneal Repair (UCSF)

Associate Director – Cell Therapy (Stelfox)

PhD Studentship – Cell Migration (MOCA Institute of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy)

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