Volume 6.11 | Mar 26

Extracellular Matrix News 6.11 March 26, 2015
Extracellular Matrix News
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Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression
Investigators determined the effect of store-operated Ca2+ channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. [J Am Soc Nephrol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DDR2 (Discoidin Domain Receptor 2) Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Is a Potential Therapeutic Target in Osteoporosis
Researchers investigated the role of DDR2 in osteoclastogenesis, the formation of cells responsible for bone resorption. Overexpression of DDR2 inhibited the expression of osteoclastic markers, osteoclast maturation, and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a culture model of bone matrix. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Testes-Specific Protease 50 Promotes Cell Invasion and Metastasis by Increasing NF-kappaB-Dependent Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression
Scientists found that testes-specific protease 50 overexpression greatly promoted cell migration, invasion, adhesion and formation of the stellate structures in 3D culture system in vitro as well as lung metastasis in vivo. Conversely, knockdown caused the opposite changes. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Fate of Distal Lung Epithelium Cultured in a Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix
To understand the functionality of type II epithelial cells in isolation, the authors tracked their fate in decellularized matrices and assessed their ability to contribute to barrier function by differentiation to type I alveolar epithelial cells. [Tissue Eng Part A] Abstract

Biophysical Induction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Podosomes
One proposed mechanism by which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) degrade matrix is through the use of podosomes, transient actin-based structures that are thought to play a role in extracellular matrix degradation by creating localized sites of matrix metalloproteinase secretion. The authors present the first evidence that physiological, physical stimuli mimicking cues present within the microenvironment of diseased arteries can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

Epithelial Basement Membrane Proteins Perlecan and Nidogen-2 Are Up-Regulated in Stromal Cells after Epithelial Injury in Human Corneas
Scientists investigated stromal production of corneal epithelial basement membrane (BM) proteins in wounded human corneas using immunohistochemistry. Perlecan and nidogen-2 proteins were detected in the BM itself and at low levels in keratocytes in all unwounded corneas. After epithelial injury, both perlecan and nidogen-2 were expressed at high levels in stromal keratocytes, including superficial keratocytes in the early phases of apoptosis. [Exp Eye Res] Abstract

67-kDa Laminin Receptor (LR1) Contributes to Hypoxia-Induced Migration and Invasion of Trophoblast-Like Cells by Mediating Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-9
Forced overexpression of LR1 augmented JEG3 cell migration and invasion, and enhanced MMP9 expression and activity. Additionally, blockade of MMP9’s effect with its neutralizing antibody reduced LR1 elevation-promoted trophoblastic invasion. [Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol] Abstract

Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein-Derived Synthetic Peptides Differentially Modulate Glioma and Sarcoma Cell Migration
Researchers investigated the biological effects of peptides derived from collagen type IV and tenascin-C compared to the well-known RGD peptide originally discovered in fibronectin. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Modulation of Tumor Cell Migration, Invasion and Cell-Matrix Adhesion by Human Monopolar Spindle-One-Binder 2
Scientists demonstrated that overexpression of human monopolar spindle-one-binder 2 (hMOB2) significantly reduced the cell motility and enhanced the cell-matrix adhesion, while the hMOB2 knockdown decreased not only the cell motility, but also the cell-matrix adhesion. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

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Organs-On-Chips at the Frontiers of Drug Discovery
The authors examine new opportunities for the application of organ-on-chip technologies in a range of areas in preclinical drug discovery, such as target identification and validation, target-based screening, and phenotypic screening. [Nat Rev Drug Discov] Abstract

Podosomes and Invadopodia: Tools to Breach Vascular Basement Membrane
New evidence has mechanistically linked the breaching of vascular basement membrane with the formation of specific cellular micro-domains known as podosomes and invadopodia. The authors review and comment on these recent findings and explore the functions of podosomes and invadopodia within the context of pathological processes such as tumor dissemination and tumor angiogenesis. [Cell Cycle] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the extracellular matrix research field.
Novel Plastic Could Spur New Green Energy Applications, ‘Artificial Muscles’
A plastic used in filters and tubing has an unusual trait: it can produce electricity when pulled or pressed. This ability has been used in small ways, but now researchers are coaxing fibers of the material to make even more electricity for a wider range of applications from green energy to “artificial muscles.” [Press release from the American Chemical Society (Newswise, Inc.) discussing research presented at the 249th National Meeting & Exposition of the ACS, Denver] Press Release

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City of Hope Launches Stem Cell Therapy Clinic to Fight Incurable Disease in New Ways
The City of Hope officially opened the Alpha Clinic for Cell Therapy and Innovation for patients battling cancer and other life-threatening diseases. The Alpha Clinic is funded by an $8 million, five-year grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine that will be supplemented by matching funds from City of Hope. [City of Hope] Press Release

Researchers Aim to Broaden Understanding of How Toxins Affect the Body
University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers received $6 million from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop models and screening tools that will rapidly advance knowledge of the health effects of an ever-growing assortment of environmental toxins. Awarded through the EPA Science to Achieve Results program, the grant will create the Human Models for Analysis of Pathways Center at UW-Madison. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] Press Release

Taconic Biosciences and Cellaria Biosciences Agree to Scientific Collaboration to Facilitate Xenograft Use in Oncology Research
Taconic Biosciences and Cellaria Biosciences announced that the two companies have entered into a scientific collaboration designed to facilitate and improve the utility of patient-derived xenografts in animal models for oncology and immuno-oncology research. [Taconic Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

Accellta Grants Exclusive Rights for Micro-Carrier Free Stem Cells Suspension Culture to STEMCELL Technologies
The stem cell company Accellta announced that it has granted exclusive worldwide rights to STEMCELL Technologies Inc. for manufacturing and distribution of medium for culturing pluripotent stem cells in suspension under feeder-free, non-adherent conditions. [Accellta Ltd.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Gordon Research Conference – Hormone-Dependent Cancers
August 16-21, 2015
Newry, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the extracellular matrix community.
NEW Research Associate – Triple Negative Breast Cancer (King’s College London)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Cell Signaling (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Early Human Brain Development Modeling with hiPSCs (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Role of ECM Proteolysis in Normal and Pathological Corneal Repair (UCSF)

Associate Director – Cell Therapy (Stelfox)

Senior Scientist – Cell Biology CMC (Selvita)

PhD Studentship – Cell Migration (MOCA Institute of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tumor Cells in Altered Matrix Environments (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

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