Volume 4.26 | Jul 4

Extracellular Matrix News 4.26 July 4, 2013
Extracellular Matrix News
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Cell-Fibronectin Interactions Propel Vertebrate Trunk Elongation via Tissue Mechanics
Scientists performed a systems-level analysis of cell motion in the zebrafish tail bud during trunk elongation in the presence and absence of normal cell-fibronectin (FN) interactions. Integrin α5 (Itgα5) and ItgαV have well-described roles in cell migration in vitro. However, they found that concomitant loss of itgα5 and itgαV leads to a trunk elongation defect without substantive alteration of cell migration. [Curr Biol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Efficiencies of Fragmentation of Glycosaminoglycan Chloramides of the Extracellular Matrix by Oxidizing and Reducing Radicals: Potential Site-Specific Targets in Inflammation?
The N-Cl group in the chloramides is a potential selective target for both reducing and oxidizing radicals, leading possibly to more efficient and damaging fragmentation of these biopolymers relative to the parent glycosaminoglycans. To investigate the effect of the N-Cl group, ionizing radiation has been used to produce quantifiable concentrations of the reducing radicals, the hydrated electron and the superoxide radical and also of the oxidizing radicals, hydroxyl, carbonate and nitrogen dioxide, all of which have been reacted with hyaluronan and heparin and their chloramides in the current study. [Free Radic Biol Med] Abstract

Breast Cancer Normalization Induced by Embryonic Mesenchyme Is Mediated by Extracellular Matrix Biglycan
Using a synthetic reconstitution system, scientists showed that co-culture of breast cancer cells with embryonic mesenchyme from early stage mammary glands decreases tumor cell proliferation while stimulating acinus differentiation, whereas cancer-associated fibroblasts fail to produce these normalizing effects. When insoluble extracellular matrices were isolated from cultured early stage embryonic mammary mesenchyme cells or E10 tooth mesenchyme and recombined with mammary tumor cells, they were found to be sufficient to induce breast cancer normalization including enhanced expression of estrogen receptor-α. [Integr Biol] Abstract

Podoplanin-Mediated Cell Adhesion through Extracellular Matrix in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Researchers hypothesized that podoplanin (PDPN) functions in association with the extracellular matrix from the cell surface side. The authors aimed to elucidate the molecular role of PDPN in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. [Lab Invest] Abstract

Molecular Characterization of the Multiple Interactions of SpsD, a Surface Protein from Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, with Host Extracellular Matrix Proteins
The authors describe the cloning and characterization of SpsD, a surface protein of S. pseudintermedius reported as interacting with extracellular matrix proteins and corneocytes. A ligand screen and Western immunoblotting revealed that the N-terminal A domain of SpsD bound fibrinogen, fibronectin, elastin and cytokeratin 10. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Inhibitory Effect of Proanthocyanidin on Soluble and Collagen-Bound Proteases
Scientists evaluated the inhibitory effect of proanthocyanidin, a natural collagen cross-linker, on soluble and matrix-bound proteases, which are responsible for progressive degradation of exposed collagen fibrils within the hybrid layer and resin-dentine bond failure over time. [J Dent] Abstract

Carbodiimide Crosslinked Collagen from Porcine Dermal Matrix for High-Strength Tissue Engineering Scaffold
Researchers used carbodiimide to chemically modify collagen derived from porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM). The results show that the strength and resistance of PADM to enzymatic digestion can be adjusted by the reconnection of free amino and carboxyl groups of the collagen fibers. [Int J Biol Macromol] Abstract

Involvement of SDF-1 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Human Dental Pulp Cells
Researchers determined whether chemokines such as SDF-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 are responsible for hydrogen peroxide-induced extracellular matrix degradation and aimed to identify the underlying mechanism in human dental pulp cells. [Int Endod J] Abstract

Take the If out of Diff: Definitive Endoderm
Integrins in Mechanotransduction
Integrin-mediated adhesions, which transmit forces between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton, play a central role in transducing effects of forces to regulate cell functions. Recent work has led to major insights into the molecular mechanisms by which these adhesions respond to forces to control cellular signaling pathways. The authors briefly summarize effects of forces on organs, tissues, and cells; and then discuss recent advances toward understanding molecular mechanisms. [Curr Opin Cell Biol] Abstract

Techniques for Assessing 3-D Cell-Matrix Mechanical Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo
Global measurements of cell-induced compaction of 3-D collagen matrices can provide important insights into the regulation of overall cell contractility by various cytokines and signaling pathways. However, to understand how the mechanics of cell spreading, migration, contraction and matrix remodeling are regulated at the molecular level, these processes must also be studied in individual cells. Here the authors review the evolution and application of techniques for imaging and assessing local cell-matrix mechanical interactions in 3-D culture models, tissue explants and living animals. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the extracellular matrix research field.
Extracellular Matrix Key to Cell Therapy Success
Successful translation of basic stem cell (SC) research into commercially viable therapeutic applications relies on the ability to manipulate human cells suitable for regenerative medicine under animal product free conditions. The challenge remains to create serum-free systems in which SCs for human therapy can be placed in a microenvironment for optimal growth and differentiation without the risk of introducing viruses and animal-related pathogens. Local scientists are currently researching what may progress this challenge; the extracellular matrix, a dynamic biological support structure around cells of all tissues and organs in the human body. [Science Network Western Australia] Press Release

NIST Announces New Scaffold Reference Material for Tissue Engineering Research
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a new reference material-a sort of standardized sample-of cellular scaffolds for use in tissue engineering research. The new NIST reference material is designed as a common ground for research labs, a well-understood, uniform scaffold that can be used as a baseline or control in experiments that measure factors such as cell adhesion and proliferation. [The National Institute of Standards and Technology] Press Release

ReNeuron Welcomes Recommendations in House of Lords Science and Technology Committee Report on Regenerative Medicine
ReNeuron welcomes the recommendations in the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee’s report, Regenerative Medicine. The findings and recommendations in the report are based on evidence taken from a wide variety of parties involved in the field of regenerative medicine, with the aim of identifying potential barriers to the development and commercialization of regenerative medicine therapies in the UK and making recommendations to address these barriers. [ReNeuron Group plc]
Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW FEBS Advanced Lecture Course: Matrix Pathobiology, Signaling & Molecular Targets (FEBS-MPST 2013)
September 26-October 1, 2013
Island of Kos, Greece

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the extracellular matrix community.
NEW Research Assistant/Associate – Thrombospondin Research (The University of Bristol)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Regulation by Extracellular Matrix Proteins (Johns Hopkins University – School of Medicine)

PhD Position – 3D Structured Self-Assembled Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering (Delft University of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Tissue Engineering (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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