Volume 4.23 | Jun 13

Extracellular Matrix News 4.23 June 13, 2013
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Strain History Dependence of the Nonlinear Stress Response of Fibrin and Collagen Networks
Researchers showed that the nonlinear mechanical response of networks formed from un-cross-linked fibrin or collagen type I continually changes in response to repeated large-strain loading. They demonstrated that this dynamic evolution of the mechanical response arises from a shift of a characteristic nonlinear stress-strain relationship to higher strains. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

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HSV-1 Exploits the Innate Immune Scavenger Receptor MARCO to Enhance Epithelial Adsorption and Infection
Researchers demonstrated that a cell surface scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), previously thought to enhance antiviral defense by enabling nucleic acid recognition, is usurped by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and functions together with heparan sulphate proteoglycans to mediate adsorption to epithelial cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

Collagen VI Regulates Satellite Cell Self-Renewal and Muscle Regeneration
Satellite cells (SCs) are located within a niche that includes myofibers and extracellular matrix. The function of specific extracellular matrix molecules in regulating SCs is poorly understood. Here, the authors showed that the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI is a key component of the satellite cell niche. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Radiation-Induced Myosin IIA Expression Stimulates Collagen Type I Matrix Reorganization
Extracellular matrix reorganization critically contributes to breast cancer progression and radiotherapy response. The authors investigated the molecular background and functional consequences of collagen type I reorganization by irradiated breast cancer cells. [Radiother Oncol] Abstract

CCN2 Plays a Key Role in Extracellular Matrix Gene Expression in Severe Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure
Researchers investigated the expression of extracellular matrix-encoding genes in severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Significant upregulation of structural Fn1, regulatory Mmp14, Timp1, Serpin3A, SerpinE1, SerpineE2, Tgfβ1, and Tgfβ2; and matricellular Ccn2, Postn, Spp1, Thbs1, Thbs4, and Tnc was evident from the early, pre-phenotype stage. [J Mol Cell Cardiol] Abstract

SLLISWD Sequence in the 10FNIII Domain Initiates Fibronectin Fibrillogenesis
Scientists experimentally confirmed that the predicted twenty-three residue cryptic peptide 1 initiates fibronectin (FN) multimerization, which is mediated by interactions with tenth FN type III (10FNIII) that expose hydrophobic surfaces that support 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonic acid binding. Localization of multimerization activity to the C-terminus led to the discovery of a minimal seven amino acid ‘multimerization sequence’ (SLLISWD), which induces polymerization of FN and the clotting protein fibrinogen, in addition to enhancing FN fibrillogenesis in fibroblasts. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Differential Regulation of Extracellular Matrix and Soluble Fibulin-1 Levels by TGF-β1 in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells
Fibulin-1 (FBLN-1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and rebuilding. Abnormal and exaggerated deposition of ECM proteins is a hallmark of many fibrotic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where small airway fibrosis occurs. Researchers investigated the regulation of FBLN-1 by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in primary human airway smooth muscle cells from volunteers with and without COPD. [PLoS One] Full Article

Quantitative Analysis of Type I Collagen Fibril Regulation by Lumican and Decorin Using AFM
The authors used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and a model system of aligned collagen I nanofibrils to investigate the role of lumican and decorin on collagen I fibril structure with high resolution. [J Struct Biol] Abstract

MT1-MMP Prevents Growth Inhibition by Three Dimensional Fibronectin Matrix
Investigators showed here that membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) acts as a growth promoter in confluent culture. When MT1-MMP was silenced in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, cells created three dimensional fibronectin matrix in a confluent culture, and growth of cells embedded within it was retarded. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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Regulation of Cell Adhesion and Migration by Cell-Derived Matrices
The authors focus on mechanisms through which the distinct molecular and topographical composition of cell-derived matrices directs cellular behavior, specifically through regulation of cell-matrix adhesions and subsequent contributions to the process of cell migration. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

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BioTime, Inc. Closes on $9 Million Financing
BioTime, Inc. announced that it has closed the equity financing it announced on June 3, 2013 and received gross proceeds of $9,057,966. BioTime intends to use the net proceeds from the sale of its common shares and warrants for working capital and other general corporate purposes, and may invest a portion of the proceeds in one or more of its subsidiaries, including funding of the expansion of the LifeMap Sciences, Inc. product development and research programs. [BioTime, Inc.] Press Release

Former MedImmune President Brings Extensive Development and Commercial Experience to Late-Stage Regenerative Medicine Company

Histogenics Corp., a regenerative medicine company that combines cell therapy and tissue engineering technologies to develop highly innovative products primarily for orthopedic tissue repair, announced the appointment of Peter Greenleaf to Chief Executive Officer. Bringing over 20 years of experience in the biotechnology industry to Histogenics, Mr. Greenleaf most recently served as President of MedImmune, the worldwide biologics arm of AstraZeneca. [Histogenics Corp.] Press Release

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US Supreme Court Rules Patents on ‘Natural’ Human Genes Invalid
In one of the most anxiously awaited court decisions of the year, the US Supreme Court unanimously struck down patents on isolated, natural human genes. Patents on synthesized DNA, however, are still valid, the justices said. Included in that category are commercially important patents on cDNA – segments of DNA synthesized using an RNA template. [Supreme Court, United States] Press Release | Syllabus

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)
European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)


NEW British Society for Matrix Biology (BSMB) Autumn Meeting – Under Pressure: The Cell’s Response
September 2-3, 2013
Cardiff, United Kingdom

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immune Regulation by Extracellular Matrix Proteins (Johns Hopkins University – School of Medicine)

PhD Position – 3D Structured Self-Assembled Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering (Delft University of Technology)

PhD Position – Tissue Engineering (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover)

PhD Studentship – ECM Components in Human Genetic Disorders (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Studentship – Molecular Biomechanics of α-Actin Remodeling (Eindhoven University of Technology)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Tissue Engineering (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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