Volume 4.13 | Apr 4

Extracellular Matrix News 4.13 April 4, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Three-Dimensional Scaffolds a New Tool to Fight Cancer
Porous polymer scaffolds fabricated to support the growth of biological tissue for implantation may hold the potential to greatly accelerate the development of cancer therapeutics. Researchers report that three-dimensional scaffolds used to culture Ewing’s sarcoma cells were effective at mimicking the environment in which such tumors develop. [Press release from Rice University discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America] Press Release | Abstract

Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Procollagen C-Proteinase Enhancer Grasps the Stalk of the C-Propeptide Trimer to Boost Collagen Precursor Maturation
Researchers used small-angle X-ray scattering to provide structural data on a protein complex indicating that procollagen C-proteinase enhancer proteins binds to the stalk region of the procollagen C-propeptide trimer, where the three polypeptide chains associate together, at the junction with the base region. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylases Are Essential for Breast Cancer Metastasis
Scientists demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activates the transcription of genes encoding collagen prolyl hydroxylases that are critical for collagen deposition by breast cancer cells. They showed that expression of collagen prolyl hydroxylases promotes cancer cell alignment along collagen fibers, resulting in enhanced invasion and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. [Cancer Res] Abstract

The Collagen Component of Biological Bone Graft Substitutes Promotes Ectopic Bone Formation by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
The authors examined whether bone formation variability of mesenchymal stem cells is cell-intrinsic or biomaterial-dependent and may be improved using biological bone substitutes with and without collagen. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

Stiff Collagen Matrices Increase Tumorigenic Prolactin Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells
Investigators examined consequences of increased extracellular matrix stiffness on prolactin signals to luminal breast cancer cells in 3D collagen I matrices in vitro. They showed that matrix stiffness potently regulates a switch in prolactin signals from physiologic to pro-tumorigenic outcomes. [J Biol Chem]
Abstract | Full Article

Leukocyte Integrins αLβ2, αMβ2 and αXβ2 as Collagen Receptors-Receptor Activation and Recognition of GFOGER Motif
To make the first systematical comparison of human αLβ2, αMβ2 and αXβ2 as collagen receptors, the authors produced the corresponding integrin αI domains both in wild-type and activated form and measured their binding to collagens I-VI. [Int J Biochem Cell Biol] Abstract

High-Bandwidth AFM-Based Rheology Reveals that Cartilage Is Most Sensitive to High Loading Rates at Early Stages of Impairment
Utilizing a newly developed atomic-force-microscopy-based wide-frequency rheology system, scientists measured the dynamic nanomechanical behavior of normal and glycosaminoglycan-depleted cartilage, the latter representing matrix degradation that occurs at the earliest stages of osteoarthritis. [Biophys J] Abstract

Transglutaminase Type 2 in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Is a Potential Factor in the Stabilization of Extracellular Matrix
Researchers aimed to evaluate transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) expression in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue and to elucidate a potential role of TG2 in AAA formation. TG2, which is a Ca2+-dependent cross-linking enzyme, has been proven important for stabilizing the extracellular matrix. However, there is no evidence of the effect of TG2 on AAA formation in a human model. [J Vasc Surg] Abstract

Type I Collagen and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Fiber Scaffold for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
The authors performed an evaluation of a braided fiber scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The scaffold was composed of 50% type I collagen and 50% polyvinyl alcohol. Histology and immunohistology analysis showed the morphology and major extracellular matrix components of the regenerated ligament resembled the native ACL. [Biomed Mater] Abstract

Sliding Indentation Enhances Collagen Content and Depth-Dependent Matrix Distribution in Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage
Scientists developed a dedicated loading regime called ‘sliding indentation’ which enabled them to apply dynamic tension as well as depth-varying strain fields to chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs. In two study designs, they explored whether sliding indentation would increase collagen content and induce depth-varying ECM distribution. [Tissue Eng Part A] Abstract

Culture primary neurons independent of substrate with NeuroCult™ SM2

REVIEWS

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Gelatinase B or Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9): The Next Decade
Research on matrix metalloproteinases and in particular on gelatinase B, alias MMP-9, has grown exponentially in the decade 2003-2012. Structural details about flexibility of MMP-9 monomers, together with glycosylation, oligomerization, heterogeneity and instability of the wildtype enzyme explain why crystallography experiments have not yet been successful for the intact enzyme. [Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol] Abstract

Noninvasive Imaging of Myocardial Extracellular Matrix for Assessment of Fibrosis
This review introduces novel methods of fibrosis imaging that utilize properties of extracellular matrix and its biomarkers. Changes in characteristics and cellular biomarkers of the extracellular space can provide significant information regarding fibrosis formation and its role in cardiomyopathy. [Curr Opin Cardiol] Abstract


Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the extracellular matrix research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

UD’s Kloxin Receives Prestigious National Science Foundation Career Award
April Kloxin, assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the University of Delaware (UD), has been awarded a $500,000 National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award to study the extracellular signals that regulate tissue stability, disease and repair in the body. [University of Delaware] Press Release

Baxter and Halozyme Announce Positive Opinion for HyQvia for Treatment of Primary and Secondary Immunodeficiencies in the European Union
Baxter International Inc. and Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use has granted a Positive Opinion to Baxter for the use of HyQvia (solution for subcutaneous use) as replacement therapy for adult patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. The product is a combination of human normal immunoglobulin (IGSC, 10%) and recombinant human hyaluronidase, which facilitates the dispersion and absorption of the IGSC. [Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)
 
European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Global Technology Community’s (GTC’s) Stem Cell Research & Regenerative Medicine
April 29-30, 2013
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the extracellular matrix community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Position – Tissue Engineering (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechanisms of Immune Evasion and Adhesion Developed by Bacterial Pathogens (Lund University)


PhD Fellowship (Ghent University)

PhD Studentship – Single-Molecule Mechanobiology (CIC nanoGUNE Consolider Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Extracellular Microenvironment in Blood Vessel Morphogenesis (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Position (GENYO)


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